Currently, when breeding currants, a lot of problems began to arise due to the emergence of new plant diseases and the attack of pests on it. Therefore, in order to prevent the degradation of valuable varieties, care should be taken to grow young seedlings. This process is not particularly difficult, since currants easily take root, quickly grows and begins to bear fruit. The simplest and most productive method of propagation can be called cuttings using lignified or green shoots. And since the quantity and quality of the crop depends, first of all, on the condition of the seedlings, you need to know how to properly root and grow them.
The grafting technology has been developed over the years, which made it possible to choose the most optimal option for various plants, given their biological characteristics. Since currants are unpretentious in this regard, for its propagation, various methods of rooting cuttings can be used. It is important to know the basic rules of the process.
Currant: propagation by cuttings in spring
Propagation by lignified cuttings
To obtain complete lignified cuttings, it is necessary to use well-developed lateral shoots of last year's growth (lower or middle part). For the bushes that are used for this, you need to observe and make sure that they have good taste and are completely healthy. They should not have pests or traces of their life, as well as signs of any disease.
To get a new plant, you must adhere to some rules:
- It is best to cuttings in mid-spring, combining it with pruning.
- The diameter of the shoots selected for propagation should be at least seven millimeters, and the finished stalk should be fifteen to twenty centimeters long. Such planting material will have a sufficient supply of nutrients.
- For cutting you need to use a sharp disinfected knife or pruner.
- The upper sections of the handle should be straight, and made at a distance of about one and a half centimeters above the kidney. Lower sections are made oblique directly under the kidney.
- Excess sheets in the lower part of the shank must be removed, and the rest cut off by one third so that they do not pick up nutrients from the shanks.
Propagation by green cuttings
Preparation for planting green cuttings is carried out in the same way as in the case of lignified. Wherein you need to choose those shoots that have still retained a green color, but are already strong enough and do not break when bent. Cutting of planting material should be carried out on a cloudy day, if this is not possible, then it can be done in the early morning hours. Harvested cuttings should be immediately sprayed with clean warm water and cleaned in a shady place, since their drying or withering sharply reduces the percentage of survival.
According to the observations of experienced gardeners, green cuttings form a well-developed, powerful fibrous root system. The number and length of roots in plants obtained by green cuttings is much larger than those for which lignified shoots were used.
Planting and rooting
- For quick rooting, prepared cuttings must be put in a container with a solution of a growth stimulator for twelve hours. In this case, the upper cut must be treated with crushed activated carbon.
- For planting black and red currants, you need to choose a well-lit and protected from winds and drafts place with loose fertile soil.
- It is better to prepare the trench in the fall, so that in the spring time to plant the cuttings in moist soil, which at the time of planting should warm up to at least eight degrees of heat. If this was not possible, then before planting you need to shed the soil well.
- Then it is necessary to lay a good layer of drainage from coarse sand or gravel of fine fraction at the bottom of the trench, onto which a special nutrient substrate should be poured. To do this, take garden soil and add a small amount of rotted manure or compost, chopped charcoal, and also large river sand to increase water and air permeability.
- Planting material must be planted, buried in the soil by about 2-3 centimeters. In this case, the cuttings must be placed at an angle of about 45 degrees, and the distance between them should be at least 70 centimeters.
- After planting, you need to compact the soil around the seedlings and sprinkle it with humus (peat) with a layer of about 5 centimeters. It is advisable to cover the plants with transparent bags or glass jars, which will create a favorable microclimate for the rapid formation and development of the root system.
You can also use a special greenhouse or greenhouse for planting. In this case, the cuttings are planted at a distance of about 15 centimeters from each other, and up to 40 are left between the rows. This arrangement will be convenient for further transplantation.
Further cultivation and care
How well the rooting of seedlings will be successful depends largely on proper care and maintenance.
- In the first three weeks, you need to provide plantings with high humidity. To do this, you need to remove the shelter daily and spray it, and for green cuttings it is carried out up to five times a day.
- The air temperature around them should be about 25 degrees in the daytime and up to 6 at night. If it rises, then you need to do aeration and create a shade.
- It is also necessary to carry out regular moderate watering in the morning and evening hours, the soil should always be slightly moistened. Even short-term droughts can lead to the death of young plants.
Root formation begins noticeably two to three weeks after planting. At this time, it is necessary to reduce the number of irrigations and begin to introduce complex fertilizers, which should contain a high amount of nitrogen, contributing to the rapid growth of green mass.
It is also recommended to alternate top dressing with mineral fertilizers with a specially prepared composition. To do this, take 10 liters of water, add 50 g of ash and one teaspoon of superphosphate to it. The solution must be kept for two days and used for watering seedlings. Top dressing should be done every two weeks until the onset of autumn. After the cuttings are completely rooted, and new, dense and elastic sheets appear on them, the shelter must be removed. This should be done gradually, removing packages or cans for several hours a day, constantly increasing the time. This will enable seedlings to easily get used to the new conditions of existence.
Plantings should not be covered with weeds that draw a large amount of nutrients from the soil. Therefore, as necessary, weeding and further loosening of the soil should be carried out, which will increase its breathability.
With proper care, by the middle of the autumn period, seedlings will form in small bushes about sixty centimeters high with several new shoots. If rooting was carried out in a special greenhouse, then at this time you can transplant plants to a constant place of growth. Weakened specimens must be left until spring. It happens that some of the seedlings for some reason are very poorly developed, in which case they need to be removed.
How to root currant cuttings
The term of full fruiting of black and red currants, depending on the variety, lasts from 8 to 10 years. At the same time, the bush maximizes strength only in the third or fourth year of growth. Therefore, rooting of cuttings must be carried out in a timely manner, so that the replacement of old plants with new ones takes place smoothly, and in the garden you could always find a sufficient amount of this magnificent berry, which is good both in fresh form and as winter preparations.
From all of the above, we can conclude that it is not so difficult to propagate currants in the garden, the main thing is to know some of the subtleties of its cultivation.