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Dill is cultivated in all European countries, and in Russia has become very widespread in culture in almost all regions.
Dill is a well-known fragrant fragrant herb, which is used in cooking as a spice that is very popular for most dishes. This green culture belongs to the monotypic genus of annual herbaceous plants from the umbrella family. Most gardeners are well aware of how dill seeds and plants look. Large double umbrellas are formed on a solitary, straight-growing, branched or almost simple stem, the diameter of which can reach 15–25 cm.
Flowers "Anеthum" collected in small sizes umbrellas with a diameter of 20−90 mm The fruits are represented by ovaries. Dill seeds have an ovoid or wide elliptical shape. As a rule, the seed length does not exceed 0.5 cm. In the conditions of home gardening, the peak of dill flowering occurs in June – July, and ripening is observed from July to September.
To date, there are a huge number of varieties of garden dill, or Anethumgraveolens L., which were bred by foreign and domestic breeders. In the backyard gardening of our country, the five most widely distributed zoned varieties of this green culture are: "Gribovsky", "Uzbek 243", "Armenian 269", "Superdukat" and Kaskelensky.
Planting dill with seeds is not difficult, but it is necessary to take into account some features of this garden crop, including preliminary preparation of seed material and the timing of sowing.
Dill: preparing seeds for sowing
Dill seeds are classified as tight. This characteristic is obtained by this culture due to botanical features. The increased content of essential oils in the seeds creates an elastic surface film that inhibits the process of seedlings. As a result, the sown seeds germinate quite slowly. That is why they are subjected to a treatment procedure before sowing. Preparing for sowing is a simple procedure.
The optimal way to destroy the ether film is the use of sparging. To this end, dill seeds should be placed in a container of sufficient size, filled with water at room temperature. Then you need to turn on the aquarium compressor.
Under the influence of water and air bubbles, the seed material is effectively cleaned of oils, but does not receive damage. The whole process of such processing lasts about 18−20 h, after which the germinated seeds must be sown almost immediately.
To remove the essential oils from the seeds, the bubbling process can be replaced by a soaking procedure. To this end, you need to fill the prepared seeds with clean water at room temperature. It is very important to know that it is necessary to soak the dill seeds for about two days, but at the same time every 5-6 hours you should definitely change the water.
Dates and technology of sowing
Dill is grown in accordance with agricultural requirements. Planting seeds can be carried out after the snow has melted and the soil has been heated to a depth of 10 cm. Dill seeds germinate at a temperature of 3 to 5 ° C heat, but if you cover the plantings with covering material, the seedlings will appear much earlier.
Dill is recommended to be sown in areas represented by neutral and loose soils. When planting on heavy soils, germination rates, growth and development of garden crops are significantly reduced. The standard technology for sowing dill is as follows:
- planting dill on a personal plot is best done by ordinary, rather than continuous sowing;
- the optimal distance between the rows should be at least 15−20 cm, which will allow seamlessly weeding and loosening the soil;
- sowing is carried out in furrows with a depth of not more than 2-3 cm, which should be abundantly watered before planting;
- sprinkle dill seeds with loose and fertile soil.
After the seeds are sprinkled with soil, it is not recommended to irrigate, since such an event provokes a strong deepening of the seeds and reduces germination.
Features of agricultural technology
To get the highest possible yield, you should adhere to the following rules for the cultivation of dill:
- for feeding dill at different stages of the growing season, nitrogen and potassium-phosphorus fertilizers are used;
- in the dry season it is very important to carry out plentiful watering in the evening;
- dill does not tolerate neighborhood with weeds, so weeding should be carried out as regularly as possible;
- to prevent the appearance of a soil crust that prevents air from entering the root system, after irrigation or rain, shallow loosening of the soil in the aisle is carried out.
In order to get conveyed fresh greens, it is recommended to sow dill every two weeks. In conditions of a sufficiently high level of agricultural technology, average productivity indicators can be more than 15 kg / ha. However, the yield largely depends on the cultivated variety.
Mid-ripening varieties can be classified as the most productive in terms of seed material. To collect the maximum number of seeds it is recommended to plant such varieties as "Kibray", "Patterns", "Richelieu", "Lesnogorodsky", "Borey" and Umbrella.
Collection and storage rules
The collection of dill fruits should begin at the stage of yellowing of the lower leaves of the plant and when drilling the fruits of the central umbrella. High-quality raw materials are ripe, dried fruits of dill with a peculiar "dill" aroma, sweet-spicy and slightly burning taste. The average content of essential oils in the finished raw materials is 2.5% or more.
How to plant dill
Later varieties of dill fully mature in two or two and a half months and are able to increase a significant amount of green mass, and are also suitable for collecting umbrellas. The most popular early varieties of dill include Grenadier, Gribovsky, and Umbrella. They ripen about a month after the appearance of mass shoots, but are characterized by short stature and lower productivity, and also enter the flowering phase early.
In accordance with the rules for storing essential oilseeds, the standard shelf life of the collected dill seeds does not exceed three years. As a rule, the seed material after drying retains good germination when stored in paper bags. However, experienced vegetable growers and gardeners recommend storing dill seeds in a glass bowl with a tight-fitting lid.