Onion (Állium) belongs to the genus of biennial and perennial herbaceous plants from the subfamily Onion or Alliaceae, the Amaryllidaceae or Amaryllidaceae family. This widespread garden culture is successfully cultivated in our country in household plots and summer cottages. Planting onions in the spring is carried out both on the head and in order to obtain a green feather.
There are no strictly defined dates for spring onion planting. Correctly plant in accordance with weather conditions, as well as taking into account climatic indicators and varietal characteristics of a vegetable crop. The approximate dates when it is best to plant the onion on the head is considered to be the period from the last decade of April to mid-May.
It must be remembered that the soil must be warmed up to temperature indicators of 12-14 ° C. If you plant in colder soil, then you can observe the active shooting of vegetable crops and a significant deterioration in the quality of the onion head. Too late planting often becomes the cause of getting small and not suitable for long-term storage of the bulb.
Growing a head from seed takes a long time. In the first year, cultivation of onion sets is carried out, which, after spring sorting, is planted to obtain a large commodity head. It is much easier and faster to get a marketable onion by planting a set onion in the first year.
The head-mounted technology is as follows:
- in the autumn, a deep digging of the soil and the introduction of organic matter in the form of chicken droppings, compost or manure is carried out at the rate of one and a half buckets per each square meter of the landing area;
- a good result is obtained by adding about 25-30 g of potassium salts and the same amount of superphosphate per square meter during deep digging;
- when sown with seeds, they should be soaked for ½ hour in warm boiled water, and then transferred to a damp cloth, where they should be kept until biting;
- over-dried or diseased onion sets should be discarded, and suitable planting stock should be soaked for 15-20 minutes in warm water with the addition of several crystals of potassium permanganate.
Soil on pre-prepared ridges must be very well loosened and grooves made with a distance of 20-30 mm from each other. Sowing seeds involves deepening a couple of centimeters with a distance of 2-3 cm. Onion sets must be placed with a distance of 10-12 cm between plants, deepening planting material by 3-4 cm. After planting, the ridge is irrigated.
How to plant onions in spring
In recent years, the method of conveyor or year-round production of green onions per feather has been used more and more often, which has become possible thanks to the skillful use of both open and closed ground areas. Equally important is the correct selection of the type and variety of onions for cultivation in open ground and forcing under film shelter, as well as strict compliance with the requirements for the basic rules and conditions for growing garden green crops:
- the soil on the landing site should be loose and fertile;
- during autumn deep digging of the soil, humus or compost should be applied at the rate of 35-40 kg per ten square meters;
- it is allowed to replace organic with mineral fertilizers in the form of 0.2 kg of superphosphate and ammonium nitrate, as well as 0.1 kg of potassium chloride per ten square meters of landing area;
- immediately after digging, it is required to level the surface of the soil;
- when cultivating green onions in regions with excessive moisture indicators, it is recommended that the ridges be medium in height;
- after sowing, it is advisable to mulch the furrows with peat or humus;
- average consumption of onion seeds for every 1 m2 is about 8-10 g.
Sowing or planting of planting material should be carried out with sufficient heating of the soil on the site. Currently, there are several methods of planting onions in order to obtain a green feather:
- sowing by the bridge method;
- half-bridge seeding;
- sowing in an ordinary way.
Planting technology is largely dependent on soil fertility and the planting material used.
Lunar Calendar Dates
According to the recommendations of the lunar calendar of the gardener and gardener, it is recommended to plant onion sets on open soil ridges from April 25 to May 5. Experienced gardeners plant in open ground at the stage of unfolding foliage on bird cherry.
Distillation of onions on a feather can be made throughout the summer season. Growing a family onion has some features, which is due to tight shooting and a good level of frost resistance. Planting such a variety in open ground can be carried out already in mid-April.
According to the lunar sowing calendar, the most favorable days for planting onions in the coming year are the following:
- from May 10 to May 20;
- from June 15 to June 19;
- from July 13 to July 16;
- from August 10 to August 13;
- from April 25 to 26;
- May, 23rd;
- July 3 and 31;
- August 1;
- from August 27 to August 28.
Sowing and planting these days allows you to quickly get juicy greens, as well as presentation, large bulbs.
Planted on a permanent place, onion sets, depending on the amount and frequency of precipitation, should be watered about twice a week in the first two to three weeks. Then, watering can be slightly increased, and a month and a half after planting, irrigation measures need to be reduced to two times a month, due to the transition of the crop to the stage of active head maturation. About a couple of weeks before harvesting, watering must be stopped completely, since excess moisture during this period negatively affects the keeping quality of the harvested vegetable crop.
Onion plantings must be regularly weeded, carefully removing all weeds. With sufficient seasoning of the site for planting onions with organic and mineral fertilizers, frequent dressing is not necessary. If a poor development of the culture is observed, then nitrogen-containing fertilizers are applied at the formation stage at the rate of 8-10 g / m2. You can also use cow manure, previously diluted with water in a proportion of 0.20-0.25 kg per 10-15 liters of water. Such a solution should shed onion planting seeds a couple of weeks after the emergence of mass seedlings and a month after the first feeding. A couple of weeks before harvesting, all young shooters should be removed.
How to prepare onions for landing
Particular harm to onion plantings is caused by black mold, cervical rot, onion moth and rust. In order to protect onions, planted in the spring, from diseases and pests, both chemical and folk remedies are used. At the stage of feather height of 10-12 cm, it is recommended to spray the garden culture with an antifungal composition based on 5 l of water, 0.5 tsp. copper sulfate and 0.5 tbsp. l chopped laundry soap. It is also allowed to carry out prophylactic treatment with a solution of Bordeaux mixture, a 0.04% solution of Tsineba or 0.5% copper chloride. It is strictly forbidden to process onion plantings with any preparations when cultivated to obtain a green feather.