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Valui mushroom (Russula foetens) belongs to the genus Russula from the family Russula. For many lovers of quiet hunting, this edible mushroom is known by the names goby, placoon, kubar, slobbering or clerk.
The cap of the mushroom Valui in diameter does not exceed 12-15 cm. Staining of the fruiting body can be either yellow or yellowish-brown. Young specimens are characterized by a spherical hat, which, as the fungus grows and develops, opens almost completely. Adult mushrooms have a pronounced deepening in the central part of the cap and distinct radial grooves along its edges. The surface of the cap is covered with a smooth and shiny, very mucous skin that can be easily detached.
Valuya is characterized by a very fragile white flesh. At the cut, it gradually turns brown. On the back of the cap quite often there are plates of various lengths. The narrowly grown plates, whitish or dirty cream staining, emit a yellowish transparent liquid, upon drying of which brown stains are formed.
Valui leg of cylindrical or barrel-shaped form. The average length does not exceed 10-12 cm with a thickness of not more than 2.5-3 cm. The leg is white in color, with the presence of characteristic brown surface spots at the base. A feature of adult specimens is the presence of a cavity inside the legs and the appearance of severe friability. In its raw form, the mushroom has a burning-bitter taste and a specific smell that causes bouts of nausea.
Mushroom Valui: features
The following types of mushrooms, similar in appearance to valuus, are quite common in our country:
- russula ocherous - has a flat or green-yellow-colored hat bent upwards and a smooth, whitish leg;
- russula almond - has a similar appearance to most russula, differs in the smell of bitter almonds on a fresh slice;
- russula morse - characterized by yellow plates and a pronounced almond flavor.
Quite often, inexperienced mushroom pickers confuse valui with a noble porcini mushroom. However, the porcini mushroom belongs to the category of tubular, and not lamellar, like Russula foetens.
The greatest danger is inattentive or novice mushroom pickers, who very often mistakenly collect false valui or horseradish mushroom, called hebeloma. This species is able to very successfully mask under the already familiar mushroom mushrooms, russula forms of edible mushrooms. The best way to easily distinguish a double from a healthy and tasty Russula foetens is to carefully study its description and characterization.
Hebeloma belongs to the family Strophariaceae (Strophariaceae). In our country, false valui is a habitual inhabitant of not only forests, but also fields and edges. Active fruiting is observed from the first ten days of August to the last days of October. A distinctive feature of Hebeloma is the presence of a very pronounced, pungent odor of horseradish that appears on the cut.
The false valuy hat has a convex shape characteristic of the species, on the reverse side of it there are wide and fairly massive plates with a brownish tint. The flesh is creamy, quite brittle. The leg is strong, with a cavity inside. Milky juice is secreted on the cut. Unlike edible varieties, false valuys are not affected by pests, so it is impossible to meet worm false valuas.
The first signs of poisoning can occur a quarter of an hour after eating Hebeloma in food in the form of severe thirst and vomiting. The next step is difficulty breathing and brain symptoms.
Valui are widespread in forest belts in Asia and Europe, and are also found on the North American continent. In our country, the main habitat of Russula foetens grows in the Caucasus, the central territory of Russia, the western part of Siberia and the Far East.
Valui can create mycorrhiza not only with conifers, but also with any deciduous trees, therefore they bear fruit quite abundantly and stably. Most often grow in forests of mixed type, preferring shaded areas with optimal indicators of soil moisture. The main collection of mushrooms of this species falls on the period from mid-summer to the last decade of September. When collecting, preference should be given to young specimens of Russula foetens, the diameter of the caps of which does not exceed 5-6 cm.
Cooking should be carried out according to the established technology. Cooking should begin with the obligatory cleaning of vegetable debris and earth and involves mandatory soaking. Valui are traditional pickling mushrooms and are used for cold pickling.
It should be borne in mind that only young mushrooms are subject to salting. At the preparation stage, they must undergo prolonged and repeated soaking in cold water with its constant replacement with fresh water. From Russula foetens you can cook a very piquant and unusual pickled appetizer. Salting can be carried out not only cold but also hot. After about a month and a half, the mushrooms will be ready for use. Soaked values are great for making salads, vinaigrette or frying. Caviar from this type of mushroom is very popular.
How to pickle mushrooms
The presence of specific sharpness and bitterness in the legs and hats of Russula foetens mushrooms implies soaking and further use of hats only (a specific taste in the legs remains even after processing). In valui water, it is necessary to withstand at least three to four days, with a three-time replacement of water during the day. Then, half-hour boiling of the soaked mushrooms is carried out, after which they can be used for cooking or canning for the winter period.