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Each gardener can independently and correctly, and most importantly economically and quickly make a greenhouse design in the country. To build a greenhouse with your own hands, you need a good plan, competent step-by-step instructions and minimal experience with the main construction tool.
Benefits of DIY Greenhouse Production
Currently, in the conditions of homestead and country vegetable growing, a huge number of varieties of greenhouse constructions are used, both factory-made and artisanal. You can independently make a greenhouse of any size.
What will be a makeshift greenhouse or greenhouse building, largely depends on the materials available to the summer resident. The indisputable advantages of this design is its low cost and the ability to erect at a convenient time and time. Besides, with your own hands you can make quite unusual or original, but very functional greenhouses or hotbeds.
Winter and summer constructions
It is quite possible to build both a winter and a summer version yourself. However, before making a project and putting it into practice, one should understand how these types of greenhouses differ and why a winter greenhouse construction requires additional costs.
- The main difference is the material from which the structure is built. For example, a plastic film is used in the manufacture of summer structures, but for winter it will not work. As a coating for a winter greenhouse, you should choose high-quality glass or translucent polycarbonate. Thin sheet polycarbonate can be used in the manufacture of a summer greenhouse.
- If we are building a winter greenhouse, it is very important to pay increased attention to the foundation foundation, since this part has a direct impact on the performance indicators of the heating system.
- The frame of a winter greenhouse construction should be as powerful and reliable as possible, and for a summer construction it can be made easier.
These are the most important seasonal features that you need to consider to create a quality and durable greenhouse.
The main types of greenhouses
Most often, greenhouse constructions are designed for the cultivation of a certain type of plant, taking into account their botanical features, including lighting and temperature conditions inside.
- Greenhouse Shed the roof is an ideal option for creating a winter garden or greenhouse, due to the presence of an internal passage into the building. In this case, the greenhouse will be easily maintained regardless of the time of year. A pitched greenhouse is best built on the south side of the house.
- Gable Greenhouses or constructions "house" have proven themselves in most regions of our country and rightly belong to the category of the most common classical structures of protected ground.
- Teardrop shaped options very durable, have excellent light transmission and do not retain snow mass on the surface, but are difficult to install, so they are rarely manufactured on their own at home.
- Dome view not only looks original, but also has some functional characteristics, including the possibility of construction in earthquake-prone areas, as well as reducing the consumption of building materials. When creating such a design, special attention should be paid to its high-quality sealing and warming.
- Polygonal design It combines good light transmission, attractive appearance, and high resistance to gusty winds. It should be noted that the installation of such a structure is quite complicated and proper organization of space is necessary for uniform heating of the air masses.
- Dutch greenhouses differ in reliability and durability. The walls made with a slope make it possible to maximize the illumination, which has a positive effect on the yield indicators of crops grown. In addition, the construction of such a greenhouse will cost inexpensively.
Which greenhouse to choose
In recent years, tunnel structures - "booths" have been popular. Such a design perfectly protects plants from bad weather and gusty wind, and as a result, with minimal investment in the construction, it is possible to obtain a stable and high yield. This allows you to evaluate this option as optimal for construction in the country with your own hands. Most often, a tunnel greenhouse is used to grow peppers and tomatoes.
Collapsible and stationary products
All hotbeds built and used in household plots and garden plots are divided into stationary and collapsible (folding).
Folding greenhouse began to be used in the conditions of home gardening relatively recently. Its basis is a lightweight collapsible frame, and its small size allows, if necessary, to transfer the greenhouse to a new place. A small design is cheap enough for summer residents, and it is not difficult to assemble it yourself.
The stationary greenhouse, by contrast, has been used by vegetable growers for many years. Design features of such a building are the presence of a metal frame on which the coating is installed, and a foundation base. Most summer residents give preference to just such greenhouses, which is due to their reliability and durability, as well as ease of use in construction and ease of maintenance.
The choice of material for the frame
The frame base and the door must be rigid and durable, which will withstand multiple seasonal temperature fluctuations, as well as wind and a sufficiently large weight of snow mass. At the same time, the number of massive elements that reduce the illumination should be minimized. The implementation of a collapsible design involves the use of materials with low weight and ease of dismantling. Today, to create a frame for greenhouses, several types of materials are used that differ in characteristics and price.
- Wood is the most affordable and cheapest option that does not require special skills and the use of professional equipment. The wooden frame is environmentally friendly and light, but prone to decay, therefore it needs to be treated with antiseptics.
- Aluminum allows you to create light and durable structures with a high level of rigidity, withstanding significant loads. To connect the parts, a household rivet is used or mounted in specially drilled nut holes. The high price of the aluminum frame somewhat reduces the popularity of the option.
- Plastic has unique characteristics such as lightness and strength, as well as non-susceptibility to rotting and corrosive changes. The flexibility of the material helps to create structures of different shapes, which is especially important when erecting arched or gable greenhouses. However, it should be noted that the significant lightness of plastic requires mandatory attachment to a foundation base or soil.
- Steel It is used to create a greenhouse frame quite often and requires a tape foundation base. Galvanized steel frames are characterized by resistance to corrosion, which increases the life of the greenhouse.
- Profile for drywall successfully combines advantages such as light weight and ease of installation. As practice shows, the metal profile frame turns out to be convenient in operation, durable, collapsible and fairly budget. Perfectly suitable for creating gable and single-pitched buildings, as well as arched structures and the Mitlider greenhouse.
- Window frames As a material for the frame of the greenhouse, they allow you to create a structure with acceptable thermal insulation in the shortest possible time and with significant savings. However, the fragility of such a framework should be taken into account: the average service life even during wood processing does not exceed five years.
Other materials for creating the frame are not popular in home garden construction.
Types of foundation under the greenhouse
The low weight and high windage of the greenhouse structure often cause the structure to tip over under the influence of a gusty wind, so the frame should be installed on the most reliable and solid foundation foundation. The choice of the type of foundation depends in most cases on the weight of the structure.
- Brick foundation easy to install, reliable enough and suitable for most greenhouses. However, it should be borne in mind that the manufacture of such a foundation is a rather laborious and expensive process.
- Stone foundation very reliable and durable. A correctly executed stone foundation is able to withstand heavy metal structures from profile rolled products and fiberglass. Most often used to create capital greenhouses and is not one of the budget options.
- Concrete foundation It is one of the inexpensive and prefabricated capital bases and involves the creation of formwork with subsequent pouring of concrete mix and the installation of rod anchors for attaching the frame.
- The most simple and affordable option is wooden base. However, the operation of such a foundation from boards or timber, even when processed with high-quality antiseptic compounds, is limited to five seasons, which makes it unsuitable to install it under a capital frame.
Materials for covering the greenhouse
As the material for coating can be used glass, plastic film or translucent honeycomb polycarbonate. Each type of material has advantages, but it is not without drawbacks, which must be taken into account when choosing.
- Film It is one of the cheapest and most affordable materials, but in terms of durability it is not able to compete with polycarbonate or glass. Even the highest quality film coating should be changed every three years. An arched, arc greenhouse is most often covered immediately with two layers of film, which allows to provide plants with the most comfortable conditions for growth and development. The material has a good level of light transmission, but it quickly wears out under the influence of sunlight, and light transmission is reduced. The disadvantages also include the formation of condensate on the inside of the coating.
- Glass belongs to the traditional materials for the greenhouse and is characterized as a durable coating with a high level of light transmission and good thermal insulation. When using it to create structures for sheltered soil, one should remember about the rapid heating of glass and the significant weight of the material. In addition, it is important to consider that replacing broken or damaged glass will be expensive.
- Polycarbonate It is a solid translucent plastic with a cellular structure. The material is characterized by durability, a high level of impact resistance and good light transmission, as well as excellent flexibility, which makes it possible to use it in structures of arch and tunnel type.
Other covering materials are sometimes used. Some amateur growers perform a combined shelter of greenhouses, in which the roof of the structure is covered with a film, and the side parts of the frame are glazed.
When the foundation is not needed
The foundation is the foundation providing a high level of stability, integrity, as well as the maximum strength of the greenhouse. However, There are varieties of protected ground structures that do not need to create a foundation foundation. These are lightweight portable and collapsible structures, whose weight is negligible, and protection against sailing is achieved by attaching the greenhouse to the ground with pegs.
In all other cases, it is recommended to equip the foundation base, which allows to make the greenhouse not only stable, but also durable.
Schemes and drawings
Before proceeding with the construction of a greenhouse or greenhouse structure with your own hands, it is necessary to correctly draw up drawings and diagrams of the structure. Drawings of the greenhouse can be varied. Nowadays, schemes of Soviet classical wooden models and modern and rational schemes of the Mitlider greenhouse can be found in free access.
The choice of the scheme and drawing of the greenhouse or greenhouse structure should be based on the requirements, features and characteristics of the materials used in the independent construction of the structure, as well as the purpose of using the structure of the protected soil in the conditions of home gardening or cottage plant growing.
You can independently create a diagram of the future structure or use ready-made options. The second option is more preferable and is able to reduce the time and effort.
DIY steps for making a greenhouse
The independent production of a greenhouse or greenhouse design includes several successively carried out steps:
- choice of type of structure;
- creation of a drawing and diagram;
- frame manufacturing;
- earthworks, including the foundation foundation;
- mounting frame support;
- installation of a translucent coating.
The peculiarity of each stage depends on the type of materials used, as well as the characteristics of the structure itself, including the size and season of use.
The creation of a microclimate favorable for the growth and growth of plants in most cases depends on the use of special greenhouse equipment. To increase the productivity of crops and the quality of the harvest, it is necessary to take care of the modernization of the protected ground in advance. Growing vegetables, berries or green crops in greenhouses involves the installation of heating, irrigation, additional lighting, as well as providing ventilation.
- Irrigation system Using drip or subsoil irrigation equipment it can save gardeners and gardeners from hard manual labor, and also saves time and water.
- Heating can be carried out in several ways, and the choice of equipment depends on the communication system that is on the homestead or garden plot. You can choose stove, electric or gas heating.
- Ventilation very important at all stages of growth and development of garden crops. It helps protect plants from overheating and provides complete air exchange. For natural ventilation, open doors and vents are sufficient, and if necessary, strengthen the air circulation, install an exhaust or circulation fan.
- Additional lighting necessary not only for seedlings, but also for almost any garden plants cultivated in conditions of too short daylight hours. Special lamps allow the crop to be provided with optimal comfortable illumination in the early spring, as well as in winter and late autumn.
How to build a greenhouse with your own hands
Today, many gardeners cannot imagine their plot without a greenhouse. And for the first time in our country, the famous scientist K. Timiryazev cultivated cultures in this way. Its merit was the construction in 1872 of the vegetation house for cultivated plants on the territory of the Petrovsky Academy of Sciences. This prototype of the modern greenhouse made it possible to develop in the following years up to the present day various types of protected soil structures that allow lengthening the fruiting period of plants and increase the quality and volume of the crop.