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There are black breeds of pigs of greasy, meat-sucking, meat direction. The choice of a specific variety depends on the climate, food supply, and the purpose of cultivation. Thanks to continuous breeding work, the important characteristics by which animals are judged are improving every year.
Common breeds of black pigs
The number of breeds grown by farmers, private traders, industrial enterprises is increasing. Black varieties of meat-lassing, bacon, greasy direction have long been in demand among pig breeders.
Black and motley
This group unites several species of pigs with a peculiar black-and-white coloration. It includes the Belarusian, North Caucasian, Mirgorod breeds and Pietrain. The most popular meat-sucking variety, which was bred in Belarus. Variegated piglets are bred by pig farmers in Ukraine, Kazakhstan and throughout Russia.
|Belarusian black-and-white (characteristics)||Boar||Sow|
|Body dimensions||Length - 1.8 m||Length - 1.6 m|
|The weight||Up to 350 kg||245 kg|
|Daily gain rate||750 g|
|Lard thickness||31 mm|
Characteristic features of animals of this breed:
- dark color, the presence of whitish and reddish markings;
- powerful physique, strong back, slightly rounded sides, wide chest;
- there are no folds on the skin.
Variegated pigs, bred in Belarus, live in the pasture in the summer, they are unpretentious to the fodder base. They have stable immunity, average early maturity. Fattening young growth gains 100 kg in 180-190 days. Sows are endowed with good maternal instinct, carry and give birth to 9-12 viable cubs in farrowing.
|Indicators||Pietrain breed||Mirgorod pigs||North Caucasian pigs|
|The weight||Boars 200-260 kg, sows 170-220 kg||Boars 310-320 kg, sows 220 kg||Boars 350 kg, sows 225 kg|
|Daily gain||500-550 g||500-600 g||700-750 g|
|Lard thickness||5-10 mm||45 mm||24-29 mm|
|Skin color||White-pink with dark spots||Light with dark and brown spots||Black with light or brown spots|
|Early maturity||210 days||180 days||180-210 days|
|Stubble||Rigid, short||Many||Soft, thick|
Puberty occurs early in gilts. A sow is used for breeding at 4 months, and boars from 5 months of age. Pig breeders receive 12 pups for one farrowing. The sow is pigs twice a year, so every year the farmer has 24 Vietnamese piglets. Vietnamese piglets have recently been brought to Europe. The farmers liked them. Pros that attract European pig breeders:
- lack of aggression;
- quick adaptation to weather conditions;
- stable immunity;
- delicious meat.
For fattening, boars and sows of the Vietnamese black breed gain 80-130 kg of live weight.
Black and white
In Siberia, a black-and-white meat breed of pigs adapted to the harsh climate was bred, the local fodder base was named Kemerovo. They crossed the Siberian northern breed, Landrace and the best representatives of the large white, large black.
|Body dimensions||Length - 1.8 m||Length - 1.7 m|
|Weight||3.50 c||2.25 c|
|Average daily weight gain||800 g|
|Fat (thickness)||20-23 mm|
The black-and-white variety of pigs is grown by farmers in Sakhalin, Tyva, and the Omsk region. They are in demand among pig breeders in the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Kemerovo Region.
The breed bred in England is grown by farmers in the southern regions of the Russian Federation. The large black pig is popular with pig breeders in Ukraine and Belarus. The first purebred pigs were brought to the territory of the former USSR back in 1949. Today, piglets of the large black breed are bred in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, in the Tula, Voronezh, Ryazan Regions.
|Body dimensions||Length - 1.73 m||Length - 1.6 m|
|The weight||3.50 c||2.50 c|
|Daily gain||700 g|
|Thickness of bacon (fat)||2.5 cm|
During the breeding work, several promising varieties were crossed:
- English long-eared.
Boars and sows of the breed have large black bristles, thick, dark. The head is not large. The neck is massive, short. The chest is barrel-shaped, wide. Legs with large hams, straight.
Rare black breeds
There are rare varieties with a dark color that cannot be found on Russian farms. They come from countries with warm climates.
In size, an adult guinea pig is very similar to a piglet. The live weight of adult boars is 100 kg, sows - 50-70 kg, newborn calves - 500 g. The productivity of African pigs is low.
They have very short legs and a massive body. The hide is covered with thick black bristles.
Nero di Parma or Nera Parmesan
A rare Italian meat breed. Adult pigs gain weight 190-240 kg. Exterior salient features:
- barrel-shaped torso;
- the neck is massive, not pronounced;
- the head is large;
- the skin is folded;
- hams of medium size.
The fertility of sows is average - 10 pups.
Black iberian pig
A rare species native to warm countries: Portugal, Spain. Traditionally, Iberian ham is made from marbled meat of this rare breed. Boars gain weight in pasture most of the year. In summer, black Iberian pigs feed on acorns, grass, roots.
Exterior salient features:
- the head is not large;
- legs are high;
- the body is rounded, the back is arched;
- pelt without bristles, black or gray.
The species is extremely rare and is on the verge of extinction.
Advantages and disadvantages
Pigs with dark-colored skins are kept in the pasture in summer. They are viable, do not react to sudden changes in the weather. The conditions and composition of piglets' feed affect the quality of the meat. When constantly in the barn, pigs quickly build up body fat.
|Viability||Malnutrition negates all the benefits|
|Lack of aggression|
Development prospects and place in domestic pig breeding
In the conditions of Russia, it is advantageous to breed a universal meat-sucking variety, black large. These pigs are adapted to difficult weather conditions. Animals have a calm disposition, stable immunity. The pork is of high quality, good taste.
Large black sows and boars are used as genetic material. When crossed with pigs of the Large White breed, promising black and white offspring are obtained, more fertile, highly productive, early maturing.