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Description and characteristics of black pig breeds, advantages and disadvantages

Description and characteristics of black pig breeds, advantages and disadvantages


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There are black breeds of pigs of greasy, meat-sucking, meat direction. The choice of a specific variety depends on the climate, food supply, and the purpose of cultivation. Thanks to continuous breeding work, the important characteristics by which animals are judged are improving every year.

Common breeds of black pigs

The number of breeds grown by farmers, private traders, industrial enterprises is increasing. Black varieties of meat-lassing, bacon, greasy direction have long been in demand among pig breeders.

Black and motley

This group unites several species of pigs with a peculiar black-and-white coloration. It includes the Belarusian, North Caucasian, Mirgorod breeds and Pietrain. The most popular meat-sucking variety, which was bred in Belarus. Variegated piglets are bred by pig farmers in Ukraine, Kazakhstan and throughout Russia.

Belarusian black-and-white (characteristics)BoarSow
Body dimensionsLength - 1.8 mLength - 1.6 m
The weightUp to 350 kg245 kg
Daily gain rate750 g
% meat57%
% lard33%
Lard thickness31 mm

Characteristic features of animals of this breed:

  • dark color, the presence of whitish and reddish markings;
  • powerful physique, strong back, slightly rounded sides, wide chest;
  • there are no folds on the skin.

Variegated pigs, bred in Belarus, live in the pasture in the summer, they are unpretentious to the fodder base. They have stable immunity, average early maturity. Fattening young growth gains 100 kg in 180-190 days. Sows are endowed with good maternal instinct, carry and give birth to 9-12 viable cubs in farrowing.

IndicatorsPietrain breedMirgorod pigsNorth Caucasian pigs
The weightBoars 200-260 kg, sows 170-220 kgBoars 310-320 kg, sows 220 kgBoars 350 kg, sows 225 kg
Daily gain500-550 g500-600 g700-750 g
% meat70%50%55%
% lard30%35%30%
Lard thickness5-10 mm45 mm24-29 mm
DirectionBaconGreasyMeat
Skin colorWhite-pink with dark spotsLight with dark and brown spotsBlack with light or brown spots
Early maturity210 days180 days180-210 days
StubbleRigid, shortManySoft, thick

Vietnamese

Puberty occurs early in gilts. A sow is used for breeding at 4 months, and boars from 5 months of age. Pig breeders receive 12 pups for one farrowing. The sow is pigs twice a year, so every year the farmer has 24 Vietnamese piglets. Vietnamese piglets have recently been brought to Europe. The farmers liked them. Pros that attract European pig breeders:

  • lack of aggression;
  • fertility;
  • quick adaptation to weather conditions;
  • stable immunity;
  • delicious meat.

For fattening, boars and sows of the Vietnamese black breed gain 80-130 kg of live weight.

Black and white

In Siberia, a black-and-white meat breed of pigs adapted to the harsh climate was bred, the local fodder base was named Kemerovo. They crossed the Siberian northern breed, Landrace and the best representatives of the large white, large black.

CharacteristicBoarSow
Body dimensionsLength - 1.8 mLength - 1.7 m
Weight3.50 c2.25 c
Average daily weight gain800 g
% meat55-60
Fat (thickness)20-23 mm

The black-and-white variety of pigs is grown by farmers in Sakhalin, Tyva, and the Omsk region. They are in demand among pig breeders in the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Kemerovo Region.

Large black

The breed bred in England is grown by farmers in the southern regions of the Russian Federation. The large black pig is popular with pig breeders in Ukraine and Belarus. The first purebred pigs were brought to the territory of the former USSR back in 1949. Today, piglets of the large black breed are bred in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, in the Tula, Voronezh, Ryazan Regions.

CharacteristicBoarSow
Body dimensionsLength - 1.73 mLength - 1.6 m
The weight3.50 c2.50 c
Daily gain700 g
Meat,%50
Lard,%40
Thickness of bacon (fat)2.5 cm

During the breeding work, several promising varieties were crossed:

  • Chinese;
  • Neapolitan;
  • English long-eared.

Boars and sows of the breed have large black bristles, thick, dark. The head is not large. The neck is massive, short. The chest is barrel-shaped, wide. Legs with large hams, straight.

Rare black breeds

There are rare varieties with a dark color that cannot be found on Russian farms. They come from countries with warm climates.

Guinea pig

In size, an adult guinea pig is very similar to a piglet. The live weight of adult boars is 100 kg, sows - 50-70 kg, newborn calves - 500 g. The productivity of African pigs is low.

They have very short legs and a massive body. The hide is covered with thick black bristles.

Nero di Parma or Nera Parmesan

A rare Italian meat breed. Adult pigs gain weight 190-240 kg. Exterior salient features:

  • barrel-shaped torso;
  • the neck is massive, not pronounced;
  • the head is large;
  • the skin is folded;
  • hams of medium size.

The fertility of sows is average - 10 pups.

Black iberian pig

A rare species native to warm countries: Portugal, Spain. Traditionally, Iberian ham is made from marbled meat of this rare breed. Boars gain weight in pasture most of the year. In summer, black Iberian pigs feed on acorns, grass, roots.

Exterior salient features:

  • the head is not large;
  • legs are high;
  • the body is rounded, the back is arched;
  • pelt without bristles, black or gray.

The species is extremely rare and is on the verge of extinction.

Advantages and disadvantages

Pigs with dark-colored skins are kept in the pasture in summer. They are viable, do not react to sudden changes in the weather. The conditions and composition of piglets' feed affect the quality of the meat. When constantly in the barn, pigs quickly build up body fat.

prosMinuses
ViabilityMalnutrition negates all the benefits
Fertility
Productivity
Lack of aggression

Development prospects and place in domestic pig breeding

In the conditions of Russia, it is advantageous to breed a universal meat-sucking variety, black large. These pigs are adapted to difficult weather conditions. Animals have a calm disposition, stable immunity. The pork is of high quality, good taste.

Large black sows and boars are used as genetic material. When crossed with pigs of the Large White breed, promising black and white offspring are obtained, more fertile, highly productive, early maturing.


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