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Cherry, known as Michurinskaya, is sweet and large. The berries ripen in early or mid-summer. Juicy, but dense fruits do not deteriorate for a long time, they are well stored, have a beautiful appearance, and are mainly grown for sale. However, many summer residents fell in love with this variety for its endurance and undemanding care.
How the variety was bred
A new variety of sweet cherry, named Michurinskaya, was bred in 1994 by the breeder T.V. Morozova. At the Michurin Institute, experiments were carried out with the seeds of the Leningrad yellow cherry. As a result of selection, the Michurinsky variety appeared.
The new variety of sweet cherry is represented by 2 subspecies:
- late - berries ripen in the second half of July;
- early - berries ripen in late June and early July.
Varieties of Michurinskaya cherries (late and early) have the following common features:
- trees begin to bear fruit at the age of five;
- berries - round, large, dark red, heart-shaped;
- tree height - 3-4 meters;
- crown - medium density, rounded-oval, raised.
Michurinsk cherry has a cone-shaped crown, directed upwards. The root system is branched. The roots are predominantly horizontal. The taproot is formed in the first years of life, over time it deepens into the lower layers of the soil by one and a half meters. The bark of young trees is smooth, brown-red, covered with stripes or lenticels. Later it begins to exfoliate in separate films.
Positive characteristics of Michurinsk cherry:
- abundant and annual fruiting;
- ripe fruits do not crumble;
- the harvest of different varieties can be harvested at the beginning and in the middle of summer;
- large, sweet and juicy berries;
- compact trees;
- after picking, berries retain their shape well, do not deteriorate, and can be transported over long distances;
- cherries can be grown in different regions;
- the culture is adapted to the temperate continental climate.
Cons of Michurinsk cherry:
- trees can freeze in frosty winters;
- for pollination requires planting near pollinating trees.
Leaves, flowers and twigs develop in spring from buds that were laid in the previous growing season. Leaf buds are sharp, elongated, tightly attached to the branch. Flower buds are rounded, resemble an egg, have a slightly pointed top. They protrude slightly from the branch.
Leaf and flower
Leaves are simple, dark green, smooth, shiny, petiolate, of medium size. The shape resembles an elongated ellipse with a serrated edge. Petioles are short. At the base of the petioles there are 2 glands. Flowers - bisexual, large, white, pink-shaped, collected in umbrellas. The shape of the petals is round. The stigma of the pistil is located above the stamens. Opened earlier than leaf buds.
The berries are round, with a shiny skin, drupes on long petioles. During the ripening process, the fruits turn dark red. The berries are broad, heart-shaped. There is a small depression at the base of the fruit. There is an inconspicuous abdominal suture on the berry.
The weight of one early variety berry is 5.5-6.5 grams. The mass of a late-ripening variety reaches 6.5-7.6 grams. In drought, the berries become small. With abundant watering at the time of flowering and fruiting, the fruits grow large and juicy.
All berries are approximately the same height. The length of one is 2.3-2.5 centimeters.
The width of the cherry berry reaches no more than 1.8 centimeters. Larger specimens reach 21 millimeters.
The diameter of one cherry is 20-25 millimeters. Thickness - 15 millimeters. The berries are heart-shaped, wide at the base, tapering to the tip.
The color of the berries is dark red, with a small (almost imperceptible) number of subcutaneous dots. The pulp is bright red, juicy.
The peduncle is short in length, of medium thickness. Quickly and well detaches from the branch.
Medium size, oval, smooth. It separates perfectly from the pulp.
The berries are red, tender, juicy, of medium density. The aroma of Michurinsk cherry is weaker than that of cherry.
Michurinskaya cherries have a sweet, slightly sour taste. Tasting score - 4.95 points out of 5.
Content of nutrients
Cherry is rich in vitamins (C, A, B1, B2, E, PP) and minerals (potassium, iron, iodine, magnesium). It differs from cherries in its high sugar content (almost 13 grams per 100 grams of fruit). Berries perfectly satisfy hunger, are useful for hypertension, atherosclerosis. Due to the high content of iron and vitamins, it is used to treat anemia. It is a great diuretic.
Tree height and growth rate
Sweet cherries grow rapidly at a young age. The tree can live for 30-40 years, but it gives an excellent harvest only for the first 15-20 years.
Flowering and ripening period
Sweet cherry blossoms late. The flowering period falls on May 10-15. The berries ripen at the end of June or in the second decade of July.
Michurinsk cherry is distinguished by high yield rates. Begins to bear fruit after 4-6 years from planting. From one adult tree, you can collect 55-60 kilograms of cherries. 80-140 centners of berries are harvested from 1 hectare.
It retains its shape for a long time. Well transported to the desired distance. It does not deteriorate for a long time. The variety is recommended for industrial cultivation.
Michurinskaya cherry perfectly tolerates drought. Young seedlings need regular watering. It is advisable to grow in warm southern regions.
This variety tolerates frosty winters well. However, during severe frosts, the tree may die. It is advisable to grow in regions with mild winters or to warm (cover) before wintering.
Sweet cherry is highly resistant to coccomycosis. However, in rainy and cool weather, the disease is likely to spread. Most often, sweet cherry suffers from moniliosis and clasterosporium disease.
Berries are eaten fresh, used for making compotes or juices, in conservation. Sweet jams and preserves are made from the fruits. Berries can be frozen, used for the production of candied fruits, glazed or fortified fruits, dry jam. Sweet cherries are used in the manufacture of sweets, as a decorative element in the design of desserts.
Basic soil requirements
Sweet cherry is a thermophilic culture. Prefers areas well lit by the sun and sheltered from the wind. It grows well on fertilized, with neutral acidity, light sandy loam or loamy soils. The groundwater level is 1.5 meters. The distance to the neighboring tree is 3 meters. Does not like swampy, acidic, too clayey soil.
Michurin cherries can be planted in your garden. You first need to purchase young seedlings. The trees are planted in early spring - before buds awaken or in late autumn - after leaf fall.
It is advisable to buy young seedlings in a nursery. The trees purchased at spontaneous markets do not always correspond to the declared variety. Before purchasing a tree, you need to carefully examine it. It is not recommended to buy seedlings with cracks in the bark, wounds, or mold. Best of all, annual or biennial plants, 80-100 centimeters high, take root in a new place.
Young seedlings should have a well-developed, moist, lush, healthy root system. On the rhizome there should be no dry processes, growths, rot, fungi. The plant should have many roots of varying lengths. Before planting, the roots are dipped in water or in a nutrient solution (Kornevin, Heteroauxin) for 12 hours.
A young tree should have a straight trunk, several lateral shoots extending from the main one at an acute angle. The bark should be brown and smooth.
The preferred age for planting is 1-2 years. During this period, the plants take root better, get sick less. However, older trees can also be planted.
It is advisable to buy grafted seedlings. It is done at a distance of 5-8 centimeters from the root. Trees with grafts take root better, get sick less often.
Young seedlings are planted in early spring or autumn. Spring planting is preferred in cold climates. Trees are planted before bud break, when the soil warms up well. Autumn planting is desirable for the southern regions.
The root system grows best in autumn. The trees are planted when the trees have shed their leaves. Saplings are planted in October, a month before the onset of frost, so that the trees have time to take root and adapt to the new habitat.
Sweet cherry grows well on fertilized or fertile soils. Trees are planted on sandy loam or loamy soil. It is undesirable to plant plants on peat bogs, clay, sandy, acidic or waterlogged soils. Sweet cherries do not like to grow in the shade. Prefers a well-lit area. Michurin cherries are planted near pollinating varieties. There must be at least 3 meters to the neighboring plant. Cherry does not tolerate neighborhood with pear, plum, apple.
Regardless of the planting period, the seedling pit is prepared in advance. If the plant is planned to be planted in the spring, then the pit is dug up in the fall. It is necessary to allow time for the soil to settle. It is advisable to plant cherries where fruit trees have not grown before.
The sod and the top fertile soil layer are carefully removed and set aside separately. Then they select the ground from the hole to a depth of 70 centimeters (width - 70 centimeters). Drainage is laid at the bottom of the excavated pit, then sod is laid with grass down.
Fertile soil is mixed with wood ash (500 grams), leaf compost, a bucket of rotted manure (bird droppings are undesirable). A little sand is added to the clay soil. You can add 60 grams of potassium sulfate and superphosphate.
First, a little fertilized soil is poured into the pit with a slide. A seedling is placed on the mound and the roots are straightened. Then the tree is sprinkled with fertile soil up to the root collar. The vaccination site should be 8 centimeters from the ground. The soil near the tree is slightly compacted and watered abundantly with water. The trunk circle is mulched with peat. Several pegs can be installed near the tree. A sapling tied to them will be more resistant to wind.
Sweet cherry Michurinskaya belongs to self-fertile crops. It does not bear fruit without pollen from growing near trees and bees. An orchard with a single Michurinskaya cherry will not yield a crop. Plant pollinators near this tree. It is desirable that suitable trees grow 3-5 meters apart. You can graft cuttings from other varieties to Michurinsk cherry.
Cherry pollinator for Michurinskaya variety. A productive and winter-hardy culture. It blooms in the same period as Michurinskaya. Fruits are round, burgundy, weighing 5.5 grams.
Sweet cherry with large, pinkish-orange fruits. Berry weight - 6 grams. For pollination, replanting of pollinators is necessary: Michurinskaya, Adelina, Ovstuzhenka.
A kind of large sweet cherry, originally from France. Fruits are black-red, with dark cherry juice, weighing 6.4 grams. It blooms at the same time as Michurinskaya, the fruits ripen in June.
Medium-ripening table variety. Fruits are red, weighing 5-6 grams. For pollination of this variety, Michurinskaya, Poezia or Rechitsa are planted nearby.
The tree blooms in mid-May, the fruits ripen in July. Berries are medium in size, yellow, with a ruddy cover. The weight of one fruit is 5.5 grams.
In memory of Chernyshevsky
Dessert variety with large red juicy fruits. The weight of one berry is 4.6 grams. The pulp is tender, melting, sweet and sour.
Michurinsk cherry requires a minimum of attention. Trees are watered in dry season, fertilized, cut off branches, insulated for the winter, and protected from diseases and pests.
It is advisable to organize abundant watering for young, newly planted seedlings. Mature trees are watered only in dry season, which falls at the time of flowering and the formation of ovaries. During the period of fruit ripening, watering is stopped, otherwise the berries will crack.
Sweet cherries are fed with nitrogen fertilizers in early spring. The tree is watered with mullein infusion (0.5 kilograms of fertilizer per 10 liters of water) Instead of organic matter, you can take mineral supplements (urea, ammonium nitrate). After flowering, superphosphate and potassium sulfate are introduced into the ground (35 grams per 10 liters of water).
Cherry branches are pruned in early spring or late autumn. The formation of the crown begins in the first year of life. Forming pruning is carried out in the spring. The crown is thinned out, the length of the branches is reduced.
Sanitary pruning is done in late autumn. Remove dry, broken, diseased branches. Top shoots are removed from the tree. Every five years, rejuvenating pruning is carried out, cutting off old ones, leaving young branches.
Preparing for winter
Before wintering, the plant is treated with a solution of lime. The land is mulched with peat or humus. The trunk is wrapped in agrofiber or burlap. To protect against frost in winter, a snowdrift is thrown to the tree.
Prevention of diseases and pests
To protect against fungal diseases, cherries are treated with fungicides or folk remedies. Insect pests are helped by insecticides, homemade solutions, or traps.
Insects that cause significant harm to cherries: cherry aphid, leafworm, cherry fly, tube worm, fruit mite. Sweet berries are eaten by birds. Glue traps are used to control cherry flies. Insecticides help from these insects (Confidor, Actellik). They are saved from the pipe-runner with the help of the drug Aktara. The remedy ZOV or Confidor helps from aphids. Against these small insects, you can use tobacco dust, elderberry decoction.
To protect against birds, rustling or shiny objects (foil, cellophane), homemade turntables, strips of white cloth are hung on the branches.
A hunting belt is used to protect trees from crawling insects (caterpillars, aphids, ticks). It is made from burlap soaked in insecticide. A tree trunk is wrapped with a belt at a distance of 1 meter from the ground, tied in the center with a rope, leaving the top and bottom open in the form of a skirt. Such a trap will prevent insect pests from climbing a tree or descending.
You can save cherries from numerous pests wintering in the soil near the tree with the help of an ordinary roofing material. From this material you need to cut a circle with a radius of 50 centimeters. In the center - make a hole for the barrel and cut a circle. The trunk circle covered with roofing material will protect the tree from insects. You can remove it in late autumn.
In winter, you need to sprinkle snow on the tree. It will protect the plant from freezing. True, after a snowfall, the snow must be trampled in order to prevent rodents from getting close to the tree.
This fungicide is used for many fungal diseases (moniliosis, clasterosporium disease). For the solution, take 3 grams of the substance and 10 liters of water. Trees are cultivated 3 times a season.
Insecticide of intestinal action, used against insects sucking juice and gnawing leaves (aphids, beetles, bedbugs). Take 4 grams of the drug, dissolve in 5 liters of water.The mixture is sprayed with a tree and a little liquid is poured under the root.
Hom or Bordeaux liquid solution
Hom is a copper-containing fungicide. It is used against fungal infection (moniliosis, clasterosporiosis). Prepare a solution (40 grams per 10 liters) and spray it on the tree during the growing season.
Bordeaux liquid is a fungicide that protects cherries from fungal diseases. The mixture consists of lime and copper sulfate. The drug is diluted with water. Plants are sprayed with the solution in early spring and during the growing season.
After the snow melts and the soil warms up, the cherry trunk is whitewashed with freshly slaked lime. Clay, copper sulfate, Dichlorvos, Dnok, Hom preparations are added to the whitewashing mixture. Before awakening the buds, the tree can be treated with a solution of copper sulfate, Bordeaux mixture, the drug Dnok, Nitrafen.
If leaves appear on the plant, you can spray it with a solution of urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate or a ZOV preparation. The earth near the tree is loosened, dug up. The near-trunk circle is watered with a solution of urea, copper sulfate.
Harvesting and storage
Cherries are harvested at the stage of optimum maturity. Do not allow the final ripening of the berries. When fully ripe, the fruit becomes too soft. For better storage, the cherries are plucked with a stalk. Plucked berries are carefully placed in boxes.
Store cherries in a cool room. At a temperature of 4 degrees Celsius, it will not deteriorate within 2 weeks.
Olga Vasilyeva, Voronezh:
“Michurinskaya is the most unpretentious tree. It tolerates rare watering and frosty winters. I collect several kilograms of berries annually. Enough just to eat and to preserve. I advise everyone. "