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In order for the blackberry to bear fruit well in the coming season, it is required to do the correct pruning. Also, the procedure will contribute to the formation of a beautiful appearance and increase the size of the fruit. If the fruiting branches are not removed annually, as a result, the plant will cease to produce a crop. Therefore, it is important to know everything about pruning blackberries, when and how to do it correctly.
The benefits and necessity of pruning
Blackberries are biennial plants. This means that only branches from last year and once can bear fruit. New shoots grow in summer, gain strength and prepare for fruiting in the next season. Therefore, when the berries are harvested, the old branches become unnecessary. They shade young shoots and interfere with their development. If they are not cut off in time, then in the next season the fruits will become small and it will be very difficult to get to the berries.
For a good harvest, pruning should not be neglected, since the presence of unnecessary shoots will contribute to the development of diseases and a decrease in the volume of the crop.
What to look for
Blackberries annually give many new shoots, if they are not cut out, then thickening cannot be avoided. It is better to thin out when the bushes are still dormant. The ideal time is spring, when the leaf buds swell and it becomes clear which shoots have suffered from frost. You should start with those that grow aside. Cut at the root.
All varieties have a lot of growth around the roots, which must be removed. If the procedure is not carried out in time, the bush will weaken, as it will become impenetrable to sunlight. As a result, various diseases will begin to develop, and the culture will also be attacked by pests.
In addition, it will be difficult for the plant to survive the winter, since the blackberry needs proper pruning.
Timing of pruning garden blackberries
Spring pruning aims to remove frozen shoots. Autumn - getting rid of old branches, and summer - to stimulate the growth of side shoots.
New, only planted seedlings do not need pruning in the spring. And require special care:
- Young shoots that appear in summer are tied to a wire.
- Lateral shoots appearing in the leaf axils are cut to 1 leaf.
- In winter, it is required to remove the shoots, leaving the 3 strongest ones, and shorten them by two-thirds.
- The next year, many new shoots will begin to grow from the rhizome. You will need to leave a maximum of 6 strong ones and tie them to the trellis, while distributing to the left and right.
In the spring
The bush is inspected when the threat of frost has passed. Visually determine the viability of the whip. If it has elasticity, a healthy sheen and a brown tint, then the plant has survived the winter. All fragile, black and rough specimens are removed.Shoots that are in doubt are recommended to be removed. They will yield fewer berries than a healthy specimen.
In upright varieties, the growing point is located in the center of the trunk. To stimulate the growth of the side branches, you will need to pinch the top. This procedure is called pinching. Summer pruning is carried out in early June. The tops are pruned 7 centimeters to induce branching. In July, when young bushes reach 1 meter, the tops are pruned. After fruiting, the branches from which all the fruits have been removed are completely cut off. In August, stepchildren, who have reached a length of 40 centimeters, are removed and shortened to 4 sheets. Long bushes should also be shortened in the second decade of August.
If there are many buds left on the stepsons, then the harvest will be more abundant in the coming season, but the berries will grow small and not fragrant.Summer pruning should not be skipped. Otherwise, chaos will form from the shoots, which will complicate the harvesting process.
At this time of the year, pruning is carried out for the winter, which allows:
- Rationally use the nutrients supplied to the plant. All the necessary elements will receive a young shoot, not an old and useless one.
- Increase frost resistance. The sun will fall into the center of the bush, and new shoots will be easier to insulate if necessary.
- To normalize the total load on the plant, which will contribute to a good harvest.
Autumn pruning of young lashes will stimulate future flowering, and the fruiting part of the plant is completely cut off at the root.
- get rid of thin and small lashes;
- cut off branches damaged by pests, since they will not be able to survive the frost;
- to stimulate a good peduncle, young and thick shoots are cut by a quarter;
- pruning is carried out above the bud, hemp cannot be left, as they rot and infect the bush.
Blackberry pruning schemes for beginners
A special method of formation in the spring will help facilitate autumn pruning and get the richest harvest. Care depends on the type of crop.
This variety has a high level of winter hardiness, but during severe winters it is recommended to be insulated. During the procedure, it is easy to damage the plant, so you should prepare the bushes in advance:
- in springtime, they remove frozen shoots and old branches that were not harvested before winter;
- biennial overwintered shoots must be lifted and tied to the trellis in an upright position;
- young shoots are attached to the bottom of the trellis at a slight slope.
Such preparation distributes the plants according to the age. Bushes that will yield crops this season and become useless are located in the center, and it will be easy to find and remove them in the fall.
Correct autumn bush formation:
- Lignified bushes located in the middle of the trellis are removed. Cut them off completely.
- They choose strong branches and leave only 8-9 of the best ones. The rest are cut at the root.
- The green growth is shortened by a quarter. Then spread on the ground in the form of a fan and cover with straw. In the spring, you need to tie them up at the bottom of the trellis.
Bush blackberries are pruned 8 centimeters each summer to encourage lateral growth. Autumn pruning consists in removing branches that have borne fruit. They must be cut off and carefully removed from the wire so as not to damage the remaining bushes with the barbed part.
Blackberries begin to form in the spring. Young shoots are selected that will winter. Leave 10 pieces, and the rest are cut at the root. New shoots are also cut off. Hemp should not remain after the procedure. Such a scheme will strengthen the roots and distribute nutrients evenly. If you postpone the procedure, then in the fall you will get a plant in which the vegetative mass will get confused and thickened.
- Shoots that have wintered must be wound on a wire in the form of a spiral. The direction is chosen to the right.
- Fix young shoots with the same technique, but wind in the opposite direction. This process will separate the fruiting zones and vegetative mass. The process is carried out in the spring.
- Before the cold weather, the part that gave the crop is cut off.
- All young shoots are unwound. Choose 8 strong ones. The rest are cut off. This part will serve as a fruiting zone next year.
- For a variety that has thorns, they dig trenches and leave them to winter in them. The thornless crop is pressed against the soil and covered with agrofibre.
During the season, new shoots are formed, which must be attached to the wire and placed horizontally. Experienced summer residents recommend removing the lower buds on each branch. When the shoots develop and the fruits ripen, they smear on the ground and deteriorate from watering. In the spring, the upper part of the shoot is cut off, leaving a height of 1.5 meters.
This will significantly stimulate plant growth and better distribute nutrients throughout the blackberry.
Repaired blackberries require the simplest maintenance. After the bushes have yielded the harvest, the shrub is cut at the root. The place where it grew is covered by:
- spruce branches;
In the spring, the material is removed, then shoots begin to sprout, which will provide more berries at the end of the season.
Pruning blackberries is a prerequisite to ensure a bountiful harvest in the coming season.
Curly varieties without thorns are called "rosette". It is recommended to grow them with side shoots. To do this, they are cut at a height of 4 buds. Pruning is carried out in the spring, before the onset of sap flow. When the plant enters the growing season, lateral shoots will begin to grow from the buds left. First years are left on the ground, since they will not bear fruit. The next year they are lifted onto trellises. After 3 years, the old branches are cut to the root, since there will be no harvest on them. Do not let the brambles grow chaotically. This will lead to a decrease in yield. Therefore, the extra bushes that appear are cut off completely.
In autumn, the varieties are mulched. The ideal shelter for the autumn period is green manure. Winter - spruce branches and peat.
Garter blackberries after pruning
The most thorny bush in the garden is the blackberry. This prickle is a big problem for crown formation. Correct fit will greatly facilitate follow-up care. For free access, the correct distance between the plants is observed. For upright people it is 3.5 meters, for creeping people - 4.5 meters. This will allow the shoot to be freely fastened to the trellis and facilitate pruning.
- Shoots that have wintered and survived are attached to the trellis exactly above the root system in an upright position.
- Small stems must be parted in two directions and tied to the bottom of the support. The height above the ground will need 30 centimeters.
This method is suitable for a creeping variety that has reached a length of 10 meters. The branches are collected in one rope and shaped into a cylinder. To do this, the assembled bundle is tied with rings, placing them at different heights. This will make it easier to tie the shoots to the support.
When fixing, long branches and young ones are collected in different ropes and directed in opposite directions. Young stems are attached to the lower part of the support.
The method is suitable for creeping varieties. Process:
- annual shoots are fixed on the upper tiers of the support;
- old branches are formed in waves by tying between the lower and middle rows.
In autumn, two-year-old branches are cut, and in spring young stems are placed in their place. This is how the old branches are replaced with new ones every year. The garter ensures comfortable berry picking.
Top dressing of blackberries after pruning
After the measures taken, the plant needs to be fed:
- rotted manure;
- solution of poultry droppings;
- mature compost.
Top dressing is applied to the trunk circle after the weeds have been removed and the soil has been loosened.