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Garden, street paths are often framed by marigolds. Flowers are not chosen by chance. They have a long flowering period. When summer varieties fade, velvet buds continue to delight until late autumn. Is it possible to grow perennial marigolds at home in pots in winter, fans of this species ask. The answer is unequivocal - you can. Moreover, at any time, depending on when we want to see flowering.
What are these flowers?
Marigolds are representatives of different species and varieties. The height of the erect stem ranges from 0.2-2 meters. Leaves pinnately dissected, pinnately separated, toothed, rarely whole, from green to dark green.
Buds can be large, small, simple, velvety. Color: yellow, orange. There are both calm tones and bright, saturated ones. Some representatives are of two colors.
Flowers gained popularity for their unpretentiousness, frost resistance, long flowering. In addition to decorative properties, marigolds have medicinal properties, they are used in cooking, as a spice, in cosmetology.
Can marigolds be grown in pots at home?
Marigolds are flowers with a bright specific aroma. Therefore, they are suitable for growing on a balcony, terrace, loggia. Lovers of the spicy scent grow flowers in the room.
Marigolds are planted not only as ornamental plants. Thanks to the spicy scent, the flowers protect themselves and neighboring plants from pests, they are used in cooking as a spice. The plant has medicinal properties.
The specifics of home cultivation
Marigolds bloom 2 months after germination. Therefore, the time is selected for a certain date, month. If you want to have a fragrant bloom for the New Year, sowing should be carried out in October, on International Women's Day - March 8 - in January.
The soil for sowing is used commercially or prepared independently. They connect the earth, sand, humus, sod land. All ingredients are taken in equal parts, except for sand - its dose is halved. The land from the store does not require processing. Self-prepared soil is disinfected: with heat, steam, frost, solution. A drainage layer is laid at the bottom of the flowerpot, container: expanded clay, crushed stone, pebbles.
Planting material is collected independently or purchased at a flower shop. Seeds are harvested in the fall. Dried in the shade, packed in paper bags. When self-picking, it is possible to choose your favorite color, bud size, stem height.
When buying flowers in a store, pay attention to undersized varieties that will harmoniously fit into the design of the apartment.
- Bonanza bolero (USA) - bushes 25-30 centimeters high, girth in diameter - 20. Terry buds, annuals, orange.
- Bonanza flame (USA) - stem height - 25, bush girth - 20, bud diameter - 6 centimeters. Bright double buds of orange and yellow.
- Bonanza orange (France) - stem height - 20 centimeters, large double buds with bright orange tones.
- Among miniature varieties, Gnome, Lupa, Paprika, Ursula are popular - bushes up to 20 centimeters high, 2 centimeters in diameter; buds are yellow, orange, double-colored, petals are simple.
A pot for marigolds must meet some requirements:
- have a drainage hole so that excess water does not stagnate at the bottom;
- material: clay, ceramics, metal;
- the plant loves sunny windowsills, so the color of the flowerpot is chosen light. In dark flowerpots, the root system will overheat;
- marigold root pivotal. Hence, the pot is required deep (1/3 of the height of the plant with the root).
- the width of the pot is chosen up to 20 centimeters in diameter. The wider the crown, the wider the pot.
When the requirements are met, the bushes will grow sprawling, with lush flowering.
Marigolds, in good light, reveal themselves in all their glory. With a lack of lighting, the stems are stretched, flowering is scarce, the inflorescences become smaller.
The apartment has southern, south-western, eastern, western window sills. If there are no such sides, artificial lighting is used.
The planting material is germinated within a few days. To do this, place the seeds on wet toilet paper, cover with polyethylene. When the loops appear, the seeds are ready for planting:
- Drainage, a nutrient layer of the soil is placed in containers.
- Germinated seeds are sown in the grooves, at a distance of 5 centimeters. Sprinkle on top with a layer of soil. Plants will bloom faster if planted immediately in separate pots without picking.
- The containers are covered with glass or a plastic bag, set in a warm place (20-22 degrees).
- On the 2-3rd day, shoots will appear, the shelter is removed.
- When two true leaves appear, the seedlings dive into separate pots.
Marigolds are not demanding in care. We need standard actions: watering, feeding, lighting.
Watering and feeding
In the summer, flowers require daily watering. In winter - as the soil dries out. The main thing is to follow specific irrigation rules. In the summer, plants are watered at night. They manage to get saturated with moisture. In winter, watering is carried out in the morning so that for the whole day the flowers suck the liquid into the root system.
The soil should not be allowed to dry out - the flowers will be smaller, the color will be pale. When buds appear, watering is carried out after the soil dries out.
Marigolds respond positively to complex balanced mineral supplements. During the vegetative period, fertilizing is applied 3 times: after the emergence of shoots, during the formation of buds, flowering.
The bushes will have a spherical shape if elongated buds are cut in time.
Lighting and humidity
The plant should receive light for at least 12 hours a day. In the autumn and winter period, artificial lighting is equipped with photo lamps.
Marigolds love moderate humidity - 50-60%. At low humidity, the bushes are sprayed, pallets of water are placed. If the humidity is high, ventilate the room.
During sowing, the temperature is maintained at 15-20 degrees. High temperatures, over 25 degrees, have a destructive effect - the seedlings do not germinate. When seedlings appear, the seedlings are placed on a light windowsill, the temperature is lowered to 18 degrees.
The optimum temperature in summer for adult bushes is 20 degrees, in winter 18-20 degrees. In winter, remove flowerpots from radiators or make protection, for example, from a shoebox.
Disease and pest control
Marigolds are resistant to diseases and pests. In the process of growing, the plant can be hit by a black leg, from pests - by a spider mite.
Young seedlings are most susceptible to black leg disease. The infection is caused by fungi.
Symptoms: The stem is covered with a white bloom at the bottom. With the progression of the disease, black spots appear, and the process of decay begins. It is difficult to preserve seedlings, but it is possible to preserve healthy specimens.
Fight: remove all infected seedlings, burn. Healthy specimens are treated with fungicides, transplanted into new soil.
Prevention: prevent disease when sowing seeds. The planting material is treated with biological preparations: Fitolavin-300, Planriz, Baktofit.
Do-it-yourself soil is steamed in the oven. At temperatures above 100 degrees, mushrooms die. Trichodermin is introduced into the soil before planting.
The surface of the leaves, when attacked by a spider mite, is covered with cobwebs. White dots appear on the back of the sheet plate. The leaves turn yellow, fall off. Sometimes symptoms are confused with fungal diseases and the wrong drugs are used.
Struggle: Each leaf is washed with warm water. Keep in a plastic bag for 3 days. Sprayed with alcohol on the soil, windowsill, pot from the outside.
In case of severe damage, they are treated with Fitoverm or the hormonal drug Apollo.
Prevention: the substrate is disinfected. Spray marigolds with warm water. Mites don't like moisture.
New plants are not ranked among the "locals". They are washed in the shower, quarantined for 2 weeks. After 10 days the shower is repeated.
Warnings and Tips
Marigolds do not like tightness. Do not place pots of other flowers close to each other. Follow all requirements during landing. Any deviation leads to negative consequences. Water the flowers with lukewarm water. Examine the plants every day for disease, pest infestations.