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Cherry varieties Yaroslavna are famous for their excellent taste, unpretentious care. The variety ripens early, the tree can withstand steadily low temperatures, withstands diseases. This is one of the most popular types of cherries of Ukrainian selection, which is appreciated even by inexperienced summer residents. Beforehand, you should familiarize yourself with all the nuances of the tree.
How the variety is bred
The sweet cherry of the Yaroslavna variety was bred in the 1970s by the breeder L. Taranenko. The species was obtained from seedlings of Drogana yellow in the Donetsk branch of the University of Horticulture UAAN. A variety of cherry trees immediately became popular in their homeland, and later gained recognition in the countries of the former USSR.
General description of the tree
The tree grows medium in height, with a round bush of medium thickening. Branches are spreading, arcuate, thick, brown in color. The leaf plate is medium, egg-like in shape, dark green in color. The corolla of a flower is white, 3 cm in diameter. The tree grows up to 3.5 meters high. When blooming, the garden is decorated with snow-white pinkish flowers, creating a romantic atmosphere.
Pros and cons of cherries
The sweet cherry variety Yaroslavna suggests a number of positive and negative features. Getting to know them will help you assess the situation and make a choice. The negative sides can be easily leveled out if you take proper care of the tree.
|Resistant to frost, dry periods||The tree has a low resistance to fungal infections|
|Fruits easily tolerate transportation||Pollinators Wanted|
|The tree produces a lot of crops every year.|
|Fruit does not crack|
Cherry is large, slightly tapering towards the top, dark red in color. The stone is small in size, easily detached. The weight of one sweet cherry is 7-8 grams. The pulp is juicy, dark scarlet, sweet. Dry elements in it are 13%, sugar is almost 10%, vitamin C - 9 mg /%, there is also iron, vitamin P, copper, carotene. The fruit received a tasting score of 4.9 points and tolerates transportation well. They are consumed fresh or prepared for the winter. Jams, jams, compotes are widely prepared, cherries are added to buns or fruits are decorated with it.
The flowering period of the tree and the ripening of the cherry
An early ripe cherry variety begins to bloom at the end of May, the berries ripen by the end of June or early July. The tree bears fruit in 4-5 years after planting, up to 20-30 kg of cherries can be harvested from one specimen. The peak yield is observed after 10 years of crop life. With good care, a maximum of 100 kg can be harvested from a tree. The variety is perfect for cultivation for personal consumption or sale. It is widely grown on industrial sites.
The cherry tree tolerates dry periods well, but if they are not long-term. The culture loves moisture, in the absence of the proper amount of watering, the number of fruits decreases, the plant loses its ability to resist diseases and attacks of harmful beetles.
The cherry variety can withstand up to 36 degrees of frost, but for a short time. If there are prolonged frosts in the region, the plant should be covered with oxygen-permeable materials. Otherwise, freezing of the crown, trunk, deterioration of the tree's condition is possible.
Disease resistance of the tree
Sweet cherry Yaroslavna has a strong immune system, but subject to diligent care. The plant shows resistance to coccomycosis, and fungal infections sometimes attack the culture.
Basic soil requirements
The cherry variety prefers to grow in fertile, slightly damp soil. The plant does not tolerate the close occurrence of groundwater, increased acidity of the soil. If the acid level is less than 7.0, liming of the earth is required. It will take 7-10 kg per landing hole. Buy lime in advance.
Features of planting a tree
Cherries are planted in the southern regions in the fall. In warm areas, the seedling manages to develop the root system before the arrival of cold weather. If we are talking about the middle or northern strip, it is better to plant a crop in spring, at the beginning of March, before sap flow. Then the cherry will be protected from frost, the rhizome will have time to form before the next season. It is important that the air temperature is stable from 10 degrees Celsius, there are no night frosts.
It is advisable to plant cherry planting material 3-4 weeks before or after frost. The place should be lit, without drafts. The distance between trees should be 3.5-4 meters, as the variety has a wide, dense bush that creates shade.
It is better to buy cherries in the fall, then there is more choice of planting material. Purchase from nurseries or professional breeders. Buying a seedling on the market from unverified sellers is fraught with getting a wild tree, or the wrong variety. The seedling should be one year old, consist of 5-6 branches, one guide.
Pre-inspect the seedlings for integrity, absence of damage, healthy rhizome. It should not have damaged areas, dried out areas. There must be a grafting site on the plant. When transporting, wrap the cherries with a wet rag, wrap them with cling film on top.
3 weeks before planting, a plot should be prepared. It is necessary to add mineral fertilizing to the soil, mix them with the ground. Weed the soil, it should be saturated with oxygen.
2 weeks before the planned landing, a hole is dug 0.6-0.7 meters deep. 3-5 buckets of water are poured into it, fertilizers are added like manure or compost. In 14 days, the soil will settle down, the plant will take root better.
Planting a tree
In order for the seedling material to grow and develop quickly, the following planting rules should be adhered to.
- In a previously dug hole, separate the topsoil from the bottom.
- Drive a 1.5 meter high stick into the center.
- Combine the top layer of soil with a combination of fertilizers - 7-8 kg of compost, 180-200 g of superphosphate, 60-80 g of potassium sulfate, 450-500 g of wood ash. Form a mound around the installed support.
- Soak the rhizome of a young tree in a clay mash, straighten it, place it in a depression on the formed mound next to a stick.
- Sprinkle the root system with soil, tamp it tightly layer by layer so that there are no gaps.
- Tie the seedling with twine to the peg with a figure eight.
- The distance from the surface of the earth to the rhizome after planting should be 4-5 centimeters.
- Form a fossa along the trunk circumference with a diameter of 50-60 cm.
- Water the tree with 2-3 buckets of water, mulch with sawdust in a layer of 5-7 cm.
The root collar of the plant should be flush with the ground.
In order for the cherry ovaries to form safely, planting with a number of pollinators is required. These trees include:
- Donetsk beauty;
- Valery Chkalov;
- Drogana yellow;
- Melitopol early.
It is undesirable that near the sweet cherry there are varieties of cherries Rannyaya rozovinka, Sisrenka. Pollinator trees should be located in the garden no more than 50 m from Yaroslavna, if possible, on different sides from it. It is better that these are plants of the same age, or older, but not young.
Secrets of tree care
It is simple to take care of the tree, it is only important to carry out pruning on time, fertilize the ground, and fight diseases or pests if necessary. Proper care of cherries will give a gorgeous, bountiful harvest, the fruits will be juicy, presentable in appearance.
Watering the tree
The cherries should be watered abundantly during the ovaries of the berries and during their ripening. Irrigation is carried out 3-4 times during the growing season. In the fall, water-charging irrigation is carried out before the shelter for the winter. The calculation of water for one tree is equal to 1-2 buckets. Previously, loosen the soil in the trunk circle, mulch. The water should be warm.
It is advisable to form cherries with 3 or 4 bushes. To prevent gum flow, circumcise only in dry weather, in June. The stem is formed at least 60 cm. The branches are cut by 1/3 or half, the outer buds are removed from the lateral shoots, and shortened by one length.
Leave the main shoot, the guide, by 20-30 cm longer. Subsequently, it will be necessary to shorten the branches every year, this will restrain the growth of the sweet cherry, stimulate the yield. Pruning in mid to late summer can dry out, sore, or die.
Carry out the work with a disinfected pruner so that pathogenic agents do not get into the plant. In March, it is better not to cut off the frozen branches, but to do it in May, when dry weather sets in. Treat wood cuts with garden pitch.
Preparing the tree for winter
For the first time in years, experienced gardeners recommend covering or tying young trees. If there are cracks on the trunk, treat them with garden varnish.
Before sheltering, prepare cherries:
- remove all damaged, dry branches;
- the circumference of the trunk is cleaned of weeds, fallen berries;
- the earth is dug up, watered, mulched with sawdust or peat;
- the trunk is wrapped in nylon or burlap.
Cherries can still be protected from frost with whitewash, which is done in early spring as high as possible, about 1.5-2 meters. You need to touch the trunks and skeletal branches.
Fight against diseases and harmful beetles
Sweet cherry Yaroslavna rarely suffers from diseases, pests, bird attacks, but if this happens, take sanitary measures. They consist in the following aspects:
- to protect the crop from birds, pull fishing nets over the bushes or place scarecrows;
- if the tree is sick, treat it with Bordeaux liquid 1%, Hom, Horus, Topsin, Nitrofen;
- they get rid of pests by using ZOV insecticides.
As a preventive measure, exclude water stagnation, cut the tree in time, fertilize the soil.
Treating bacterial cancer in a tree
Cherry bacterial cancer attacks trees that are 3 to 8 years old. The disease suggests a bacterial etiology. Pathology is preceded by a wet, cold spring with frequent showers and winds. It manifests itself in this way:
- branches become covered with ulcers from which gum flows;
- specks of a brownish tint with a yellow border appear on the leaves and berries;
- fruit legs are covered with small brown ulcers;
- wood dies, foliage dies.
Cherry usually does not survive. Bacteriosis can be asymptomatic if the summer is warm and without precipitation. There are no methods of therapy for this disease. Some gardeners advise resorting to pruning diseased branches, cutting out affected areas in the bark, processing with copper sulfate.
Such treatment techniques rarely produce positive results. If the disease is at an early stage, it is possible that the therapeutic regimen will be relevant. When cancer is advanced, cherries cannot be cured. The pathological process develops in trees that are regularly fertilized with nitrogen and watered moderately.
Reviews of the cherry variety
Responses about Yaroslavna's sweet cherry are mostly positive. They will help you evaluate the variety realistically.
Christina Ostapets, 35 years old, Kiev.
Hello! In 2013, she planted Yaroslavna's sweet cherry on the plot. The plant is unpretentious in care, which plays into the hands of summer residents. I had 3 such trees on my site, from which I collected 15 kg of fruits. Sweet cherries are always sweet, juicy, without sourness. I recommend this variety to everyone.
Pavel Lavrentiev, 58 years old, Kazan.
Greetings! I have been fond of gardening for 10 years. Cherry Yaroslavna has been growing in my garden since 2010. The tree ripens early, by mid-June. Cherries are always juicy, I treat them to my colleagues at work, I cook excellent compotes. The plant never hurt, however, it was attacked by weevils. Destroyed them in 2 approaches, using chemicals. I am completely satisfied with the culture, I advise everyone!