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Peppers, whether sweet or hot and hot, are grown in almost every suburban area. Throughout the warm season with the cultivation of this crop, various kinds of problems can arise, because pepper, like other plants, is susceptible to attack by pests and infection. It is possible to recognize that something bad is happening with peppers by such signs as a change in the shape, color and size of the leaves. They may fade, dry out, or even become covered with unsightly holes.
The spoilage of the appearance of the pepper bush is nothing compared to the fact that the crop productivity is greatly reduced, because any disease or pest most often affects the entire plant, including its ground and underground parts. The first thing that a summer resident needs to do is to determine the reasons why the leaves curl, wither or dry, and only then look for ways to get rid of diseases and pests.
Why do the leaves of peppers change
As many beginner gardeners believe, if pepper lowered its "head" and actively drops leaves and even fruits, then the problem is a lack of watering or nutrients. Such symptoms, along with the appearance of spots or holes, may indicate an outbreak of infection, which may be:
Each group has at least 4 types of diseases, the source of which can be unverified seedlings, damage on the leaves and trunk, soil on the site, plant debris and even gardener's tools.
In a word, there are not so few options in which the plant dries or, on the contrary, is covered with wet rotting spots. Pests can also play a large role in the process of growing peppers, thanks to which holey leaf blades and fruits flaunt most often on plants, and ovaries fall off. They often become carriers of infections.
Why pepper buds fall off
Bacterial infections of pepper: signs and methods of elimination
Sweet pepper is affected by several bacterial infections that enter the plant in various ways. The most common diseases that cause external changes in the leaf blade include:
- cancer of bacterial origin;
- bacterial rot (soft);
- bacterial wilt;
- black bacterial spotting.
Each infection has a set of symptoms and signs that can be used to easily identify the disease.
|Disease name||Signs of plant damage||Control and Prevention Measures|
|Bacterial cancer||Leaves are covered with brown spots with uneven edges and a lighter center. Over time, small formations merge into one (up to 3 cm in diameter) and crust over||Spraying with copper oxychloride or vitriol of healthy plants. Sick plants need to be removed. After the growing season, soil replacement is recommended, and the spring is treated with methyl bromide in the greenhouse|
|Bacterial rot||The leaves wither and remain soft, but after a week they die and fall off. The stem becomes empty from the inside, and brown, watery, rounded cavities appear on the fruits||It is impossible to eliminate the disease by plant treatments. Seed dressing and thorough cleaning of plant debris help to avoid infection.|
|Bacterial wilt||The development of infection occurs at lightning speed. Leaves and stems turn yellow and fade, then twist and completely die||There are no specific remedies for the treatment of plants. A good effect is given to the preventive treatment of greenhouses and soil in o / g: the complete removal of leaves that have turned yellow and opal, deep digging and crop rotation|
|Bacterial spotting||Leaf blades and petioles darken (the shape of the spots is elongated), spread out and cover the entire sheet. The spots on the fruits look the same, but in the immediate vicinity of them the color remains bright green, even if the pepper is already ripe||The fight against the disease should begin as soon as the leaves or cuttings have darkened. Copper treatment is recommended. In the event that the lesion area is very small, the question is solved: do they break off the leaves, since sometimes preventive measures give a good result|
Almost all bacterial pepper infections are difficult to treat. Reviews of experienced summer residents say that it is better to apply preventive measures:
- avoid sudden changes in temperature and humidity when growing peppers;
- observe crop rotation;
- carefully remove the dry parts of the plant throughout the growing season;
- to disinfect soil, especially in greenhouses, stock and planting material (mainly seeds).
To enhance the plant’s own immunity, it is recommended to treat them with various stimulants, as well as feed them with organomineral additives.
Pepper viral diseases, their signs and methods of control
Among all viral diseases, peppers are most susceptible to tobacco and cucumber mosaic viruses and strick. In general, the virus can be suspected by the fact that the leaves have become small, and their color has changed to variegated (in some cases, individual parts of the plant turn completely blue or red). More detailed signs of infection are in the table.
|Disease||Signs of defeat||Methods of struggle|
|Tobacco mosaic||The leaves become variegated with yellowness, curls appear, and then they turn black and fall off. The plant lags in growth, and the fruits grow strongly deformed||Seed dressing with potassium permanganate, spraying plants with a solution of milk with iodine|
|Cucumber mosaic||The plant spontaneously fades, but the leaves do not become dark, but retain a green color. Plants quickly dry and completely die off within 2-3 days, remaining green. In some cases, the leaves may change color to darker or, conversely, light. With any strain of the virus, the plants are far behind in growth||The carrier of the virus is aphids. To successfully combat the disease, it is necessary to tackle the pest and carefully remove the plant debris eaten by it|
|Strick||The plant lags behind in growth, brown strokes appear on its parts. Leaf blades bend and turn over; stems become brittle||Control methods are similar to cucumber mosaic, as the virus is transmitted by gnawing and sucking pests.|
Another way to protect peppers from viral diseases is to plant varieties resistant to them. These include peppers of the varieties Atlant, Flamenco, Dawn, Gift of the Caspian Sea, Jimini, as well as hybrids of the first generation Yubileiny Semko, Aries and Cardinal. Reviews about these varieties are positive.
Also, a good result is obtained by a complete replacement of the soil in greenhouses or on stationary beds, disinfection of equipment with trisodium phosphate (15%) during the entire time of plant care, and pre-sowing heating and chemical disinfection of seeds.
We also offer you to find out about the causes of wilting and curling of leaves on peppers in a greenhouse.
Fungal diseases and their control
Fungal diseases are divided into spotting and rot. In the first case, the leaf blades are first covered with small dots, which then grow and merge into one large spot, and the leaves curl, dry and fall off. Unlike spotting, rot causes the formation of watery spots. At the same time, the leaves do not dry, but get wet, spreading the spores of the pathogenic fungus.
Measures to combat fungal diseases, whether rot or spotting, are reduced to the following procedures:
- treatment of plantings with Bordeaux mixture before the onset of the disease and on the affected plants;
- removal of diseased leaves or shoots;
- processing plants with infusions of onions or garlic;
- thorough ventilation of the greenhouse;
- cleaning the site in the fall of all plant debris.
How to care for pepper
It is also recommended to treat peppers with growth and immunity stimulants. These measures are enough to avoid a new appearance of mushroom diseases on pepper plantings.